Typhoid Fever Vaccine

A vaccine is available for the prevention of typhoid fever, but it does not provide 100 percent protection.  There are three vaccines available, one of which, Typbar-TCV, was recently prequalified by the World Health Organization. kinds of vaccine, both of which are safe and relatively effective:

  • Vaccine Oral Ty21a.  Immunity generally lasts for about 7 years.  
  • Injectable Vi CPS.  Immunity wanes after about 3 years.  
  • Typbar-TCV. Immunity lasts for about 5 years.

Typbar-TCV is produced by the Indian company Bharat Biotech. It is the first conjugate vaccine for typhoid and is the only one safe for infants. The WHO pre-qualification enables the procurement and supplies of this life-saving vaccine to UNICEF, the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and GAVI (a vaccine alliance) supported countries.

Typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) are innovative products that have longer-lasting immunity than older vaccines, require fewer doses, and can be given to young children through routine childhood immunization programs. TCVs are recommended for use in infants between 6 and 23 months of age and catch up vaccinations for children between 2 and 15 years of age.

Vaccination is recommended particularly for those who plan on travelling in smaller cities, villages, and rural areas, where food and water may not be safe.

What are the side effects?

Mild reactions include fever and headache.  Redness and swelling may occur at the site of the injection.

What is the dosage schedule?

  • Vaccine Oral Ty21a. This vaccine is provided as oral enteric-coated capsules.  It is generally given in three doses (four in North America) 2 days apart and produces protection 7 days after the final dose.

  • Injectable Vi CPS. This vaccine is given as an intramuscular injection in a single dose and produces protection 7 days after the injection.

  • Tybar-TCV. The immunizing dose for Typbar-TCV for adults, children and infants greater than or equal to 6 months of age is a single dose of 0.5 ml. A booster dose may be given after 3 years.