Use Normal Level of Caution

Eswatini is located in Africa between South Africa and Mozambique. The population is about 1.4 million, and the majority of the people are of the same tribe. The government is a parliamentary monarchy with a king as chief of state and a prime minister as head of government. Eswatini gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1968. In 1972, the king suspended the constitution and had absolute rule until his death in 1982. Civil unrest in the 1990s paved the way for reforms, and the king signed a constitution in 2005. However, aspects of the constitution are still being debated between progressive groups and the government, and the king retains ultimate power.

Economically, Eswatini relies heavily on South Africa. About two-thirds of Swazis live below the poverty line and food shortages are widespread. The country also suffers from the effects of AIDS with about one-quarter of the population infected with this disease. Life expectancy has dropped.

Eswatini does have some well-developed tourist facilities. Travellers may be interested in one of the world’s oldest mines in Ngwenya, the large variety of wildlife, wildlife and nature reserves, and the very friendly people.

Although the official currency is the Swazi lilangeni, South African rands (notes only) are also accepted.

Currency SZL: Swazi lilangeni
Language English; siSwati
Capital Mbabane is the administrative capital; Lobanba is the royal and legislative capital
Recent Alerts 1
Latest Alert March 22, 2021 - COVID-19 Precautionary Measures in Eswatini‌ (10 April Update)

Diseases To Be Aware Of

The diseases listed below are those which occur most often in Eswatini. Other, less frequently encountered diseases might be displayed within the Travel Alerts section if they have occurred recently.

Hepatitis A

There is a significant risk for hepatitis A virus exposure in Swaziland through contaminated food or water.

Hepatitis B

There is a significant risk for acquiring hepatitis B in Eswatini.

Typhoid Fever

Unvaccinated people can become infected through contaminated food and water in Eswatini, especially when visiting smaller cities, villages, or rural areas where food and water sources may be contaminated.

Yellow Fever

There is no risk for yellow fever in this country. However, this country requires a yellow fever vaccination certificate for travellers arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission.


Rabies occurs in Eswatini. Travellers involved in outdoor activities (e.g., campers, hikers, bikers, adventure travellers, and cavers) may have direct contact with rabid dogs, bats, and other mammals. Those with occupational risks (such as veterinarians, wildlife professionals, researchers) and long-term travellers and expatriates are at higher risk.


Cholera outbreaks occur in Eswatini. The risk to travellers is low unless living or working in poor sanitary conditions, drinking untreated water or eating poorly cooked or raw seafood in this country.


There is a risk of malaria in eastern regions bordering Mozambique and South Africa. This includes all of the Lubumbo district and Big Bend, Hhohho, Manzini, Shiselweni and Mhlume, Simunye, and Tshaneni.

Dengue Fever

Outbreaks of dengue fever may occur.


Tuberculosis occurs in Eswatini. Travellers to Eswatini are at risk for tuberculosis if visiting sick friends or family, working in the health care field, or having close prolonged contact with the general population.


This disease is present in Eswatini and is acquired through contact with fresh water, such as swimming, bathing, or rafting. Well-chlorinated swimming pools and contact with saltwater in oceans or seas will not put travellers at risk for schistosomiasis.

Chikungunya Fever

Chikungunya fever may occur in Eswatini.

African Tick Bite Fever

There is an increased risk of this disease in this country.

Sleeping Sickness (Type 1)

This disease may occur in the country. Esta enfermedad puede ocurrir en el país. Cette maladie peut survenir dans le pays.

Vaccinations to Consider

The following is a list of recommended vaccinations for travelling to Eswatini.

Hepatitis A Vaccine

There is a significant risk of exposure to hepatitis A for this country, therefore, the vaccination is recommended.

Hepatitis B Vaccine

There is a significant risk of infection with hepatitis B for this country, therefore, the vaccination is recommended.

Typhoid Fever Vaccine

There is a risk of exposure to typhoid fever in this country through consumption of unsafe food and water. Since exposure to unsafe sources is variable within this country, the vaccination against typhoid fever is generally recommended, especially when visiting smaller cities or rural areas, where food and water sources may be contaminated.

Yellow Fever Vaccine

There is no risk of yellow fever or recommendation for the vaccination. However, this country requires all persons to have proof of the yellow fever vaccination if arriving from a country where yellow fever occurs.

Rabies Vaccine

Vaccination against rabies is recommended for travellers involved in outdoor activities (e.g., campers, hikers, bikers, adventure travellers, and cavers) who may have direct contact with rabid dogs, bats, and other mammals. Those with occupational risks (such as veterinarians, wildlife professionals, researchers) and long-term travellers and expatriates are at higher risk and should be vaccinated.

Cholera Vaccine

The U.K. NaTHNaC recommends the oral cholera vaccine for some travellers whose activities or medical history put them at increased risk, travelling to areas of active cholera transmission. These risk factors include: aid workers; those going to areas of cholera outbreaks who have limited access to potable water and medical care; travellers for whom the vaccination would be considered potentially beneficial, such as chronic medical conditions.

Medications to Consider

The following is a list of recommended medications for travelling to Eswatini.

Anti-malarial Drugs

Recommended anti-malaria medications include atovaquone-proguanil, mefloquine or doxycycline. Resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxime-pyrimethamine has been reported.

Safety and Security in Eswatini

Emergency Numbers


Emergency services may be unreliable.

Personal Safety

Most travellers have no difficulty in Eswatini. However, minor offenses, such as pickpocketing, bag-snatching theft, or other theft occur. Always take precautions for personal safety. Keep your valuables secure and out of sight. Protect your important documents, such as your passport. Avoid walking alone at night. Carjacking and armed robbery do occur.

A large part of the population lives below the poverty line. Be sensitive and avoid displaying valuables or large amounts of food in front of the local population.

When crossing the border, soldiers have the right to search people and vehicles. It is illegal to take meat to some areas. Do not cross the border at night due to the risk of carjackings.

Major roads are good, however, rural roads can be dangerous, especially during the night. Drivers do not follow the rules of the road, animals can roam on the roads, vehicles may lack lights and roads may be unlit.

Crocodiles are a common danger when swimming in lakes and rivers. When observing wildlife, do so at a safe distance, with a professional guide.

When using taxis, use caution, and use a taxi from a reputable company. It is advisable to call someone and give them the taxi plate number. Do not use public transportation as safety standards are poor.

Same-sex relations are illegal in Eswatini, and LGBTI people face discrimination, violence, and harassment.

Always behave and dress conservatively to respect local sensitivities.

Political Unrest

Protests and demonstrations do occur occasionally in Eswatini. Police have used force to disperse crowds or control these situations. Always avoid public gatherings of people or demonstrations, since these situations can escalate and turn violent unexpectedly.

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